06 September 2020 19:59:22 / Berita / Hits : 1907 / Posted by Administrator
Central Java Volcano
What is a volcano?
A volcano is an opening in the earth’s crust through which lava, volcanic ash, and gases escape. Volcanic eruptions are partly driven by pressure from dissolved gas, much as escaping gases force the cork out of a bottle of champagne. Beneath a volcano, liquid magma containing dissolved gases rises through cracks in the Earth’s crust. As the magma rises, pressure decreases, allowing the gases to form bubbles. How the magma (lava) behaves when it reaches the surface depends on both its gas content and chemical composition. Lavas with low silica contents have low viscosities and flow freely, allowing any gas bubbles to escape readily, while lavas with high silica contents are more viscous (resistant to flow), so that any trapped gases cannot escape gradually.
Mount Slamet Stratovolcano
Mount Slamet 3,428 m msl or Gunung Slamet is an active stratovolcano in the Purbalingga Regency of Central Java, Indonesia. It has a cluster of around three dozen cinder cones on the lower southeast-northeast flanks and a single cinder cone on the western flank. The volcano is composed of two overlapping edifices. Four craters are found at the summit. Historical eruptions have been recorded since the eighteenth century.
Gunung Slamat was closed to climbers for much of 2010 and 2011 but was re-opened in late 2011. Many climbers were expected to visit to peak on New Year’s Eve 2012 to celebrate the new year.
The volcano erupted in 2009 and again in September 2014.
Dieng Volcanic Complex Complex volcano
Dieng Volcanic Complex ( 2,565 m msl ) is on the Dieng Plateau in the Central Java, Indonesia, as a complex of volcanoes. The volcanic complex consists of two or more of stratovolcanoes, more than 20 small craters and Pleistocene-to-Holocene age volcanic cones. It covers over 6 × 14 km area. The Prahu[clarification needed] stratovolcano was truncated by a large Pleistocene caldera and then filled by parasitic cones, lava domes and craters which is 120 Celsius[clarification needed]. Some of them are turned into lakes. Toxic volcanic gas has caused fatalities and is a hazard at several craters. On 20 February 1979 149 people died of gas poisoning in Pekisaran village on the plateau near the Sinila crater. The area is also a major geothermal project.
Mount Sundoro Stratovolcano
Mount Sindoro ( 3,136 m msl ), Mount Sindara or Mount Sundoro is an active stratovolcano in Central Java, Indonesia. Parasitic craters and cones are found in the northwest-southern flanks; the largest is called Kembang. A small lava dome occupies the volcano’s summit. Historical eruptions have been mostly mild-to-moderate.
Mount Sumbing Stratovolcano
Mount Sumbing (3.371 m msl ) or Gunung Sumbing is an active stratovolcano in Central Java, Indonesia, symmetrical with Sundoro. The only report of historical eruptions is from 1730. It has created a small phreatic crater at the summit.
Mount Ungaran Stratovolcano
Mount Ungaran (2.050 m msl ) is a deeply eroded stratovolcano, located in the south of Semarang, Indonesia. There are no historical records about the mountain’s activities. Two active fumarole fields are found on the southern flanks.
The town of Ungaran is located on the eastern side of the volcano, whereas Ambarawa lays of its southern wing. Bandungan and surroundings, including the Gedong Songo temple complex, are tourist attractions on the volcano. The lake of Rawa Pening is located southeast of the volcano.
Endemic fauna includes Philautus jacobsoni, a tree frog that has not been seen for decades.
Mount Telomoyo Stratovolcano
Mount Telomoyo (1,894 m msl ) is a stratovolcano in Central Java, Indonesia. The volcano was constructed over the southern flank of the eroded Pleistocene-age Soropati volcano, which has a height of 1,300 metres (4,300 ft). The Soropati volcano collapsed during the Pleistocene, leaving a U-shaped depression. Mount Telomoyo grows on the southern side of the depression, reaching over 600 metres (2,000 ft) above the depression’s rim.
Mount Merbabu Stratovolcano
Mount Merbabu 3.145 m sal(Indonesian: Gunung Merbabu) is a dormant stratovolcano in Central Java province on the Indonesian island of Java. The name Merbabu could be loosely translated as ’Mountain of Ash’ from the Javanese combined words; Meru means "mountain" and awu or abu means "ash".
The active volcano Mount Merapi is directly adjacent on its south-east side, while the city of Salatiga is located on its northern foothills. A 1,500m high broad saddle lies between Merbabu and Merapi,the site of the village of Selo, Java and highly fertile farming land.
There are two peaks; Syarif (3,119 m msl) and Kenteng Songo (3,145 m msl). Three U-shaped radial valleys extend from the Kenteng Songo summit in northwesterly, northeastly and southeastly directions.
Two known moderate eruptions occurred in 1560 and 1797. The 1797 event was rated 2: Explosive, on the Volcanic Explosivity Index.An unconfirmed eruption may have occurred in 1570.
Mount Merapi Stratovolcano
Mount Merapi 2,910 m msl, Gunung Merapi (literally Fire Mountain in Indonesian and Javanese), is an active stratovolcano located on the border between Central Java and Special Region of Yogyakarta provinces, Indonesia. It is the most active volcano in Indonesia and has erupted regularly since 1548. It is located approximately 28 kilometres (17 mi) north of Yogyakarta city which has a population of 2.4 million, and thousands of people live on the flanks of the volcano, with villages as high as 1,700 metres (5,600 ft) above sea level.
Mount Muria Stratovolcano
Mount Muria or Gunung Muria is a dormant volcano on the north coast of Java, Indonesia. It is located in the center of the Muria peninsula, which juts northward into the Java Sea on the north coast of Central Java, Indonesia east of Semarang, the capital of the province. Mount Muria is 1602 meters high but once was maybe twice that height. Mount Muria was once an island, separated from Java by the Muria Paleostrait. This strait closed around 1657.
The Muria area is notable for a number of reasons. It contains the grave sites of two of the Wali Sanga of Java - Sunan Muria, also known as Raden Umar Said, whose grave is in Colo on the southern slopes of Mount Muria, and Sunan Kudus, known also as Ja’far Shadiq, whose grave is in the city of Kudus to the south of Mount Muria. The Wali Sanga are the nine Islamic Saints associated with the origins of Islam in Java. As a consequence the grave is part of the network of sites in Java considered to be sacred. The name Kudus means "holy."
The area is also the locale of the missionary origins of the Muria Javanese Church, Gereja Injili di Tanah Jawa, in whose history the legendary Javanese Christian mystic Kiai Ibrahim Tunggul Wulung played an important role. It is also the area of the missionary origins of the Gereja Kristen Muria Indonesia Mennonite Christian group.
Major products of this area of Java are rice, sugar, coffee, fish, rubber, coconuts and clove cigarettes. A major current issue for the area is the plan of the national electric company to construct a major nuclear power plant on the northwest side of Mount Muria.
Mount Lawu Stratovolcano (bordering with East Java)
Mount Lawu 3,265 m msl, or Gunung Lawu, is a massive compound stratovolcano straddling the border between East Java and Central Java, Indonesia. The north side is deeply eroded and the eastern side contains parasitic crater lakes and parasitic cones. A fumarolic area is located on the south flank at 2,550 m. The only reported activity of Lawu took place in 1885, when rumblings and light volcanic ash falls were reported.
Images of volcanic eruptive behavior
A low viscosity (runny) lava, like basalt that contains lots of gas, forms fire-fountains, spewing spectacularly into the air and breaking into globs that solidify as they fall to the ground. Small fire-fountain eruptions produce cinder cones (like Eve Cone in northern British Columbia).
When runny lava contains less gas, however, it erupts in outpouring lava flows. Repeated fire-fountain and lava flow eruptions over long time periods form gently sloping shield volcanoes like Anahim Peak in central British Columbia, and the volcanoes of the Hawaiian Islands.
Andesite, dacite, and rhyolite lavas are progressively higher in silica and more viscous, so gases cannot escape gradually. If high-silica lavas contain little trapped gas, they may ooze slowly onto the surface to pile up as steep-sided lava domes.
When high-silica lavas contain lots of trapped gas, the pressure builds up and is released in explosive eruptions that produce volcanic ash. Some volcanoes experience both explosive and non-explosive activity, alternating explosive eruptions with periods of dome-building, forming stratovolcanoes like Mount St. Helens and Mount Garibaldi.
Source : https://chis.nrcan.gc.ca/volcano-volcan/volcano-volcan-en.php & https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_
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